Methamphetamine causes the release of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin and activates the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, pharmacological actions of. Crystalline methamphetamine is a form of the stimulant methamphetamine that, when smoked, can quickly reach high concentrations in the brain. Methamphetamine causes the release of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin and activates the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Dopamine levels are low in the brain of some drug users, but it is not certain if this represents neuronal loss.
The areas of the brain involved in methamphetamine addiction are unknown, but they probably include the dopamine-rich striatum and the regions that interact with the striatum. There is no approved medication for the treatment of relapses of methamphetamine addiction; however, potential therapeutic agents targeting dopamine and non-dopamine (for example, acute methamphetamine administration) increases extracellular dopamine (DA) levels through reverse transport of AD and by displacement of the DA from the vesicular reserves. In a study conducted in monkeys to assess the persistence of the effects of exposure to methamphetamine, Harvey et al. Later, clandestine chemists began to use ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as the main precursors in methamphetamine synthesis.
Although methamphetamine-dependent individuals showed deficits in the explicit components of tasks, they retained care preparedness, which is a notable dissociation in care performance. This finding is outstanding, as animal studies have revealed reduced levels of 5-HT due to the administration of high doses of methamphetamine. Despite the wealth of animal research data available in the literature17, the areas of the human brain and the key neurochemicals responsible for the pleasurable effects of methamphetamine and the transition from drug taste to the desire to use drugs are still unknown. The increase in impulsivity and impaired judgment associated with methamphetamine use may be related to the depletion of the DA and 5-HT neurotransmitter systems.
Methamphetamine also activates the cardiovascular system (increased heart rate and blood pressure) and, for this reason, can cause death at high doses. The areas of the brain responsible for the attraction and desire to consume methamphetamine are unknown, but they probably include the striatum and the regions that provide entry to the striatum. In the brain, a major action of methamphetamine is to raise the levels of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) by promoting their release by nerve endings. Animal data show that a high dose of methamphetamine damages the nerve endings of striatal dopamine29, and it is reasonable to expect from experimental findings that this damage will also occur in people exposed to any dose of the drug.
Other studies reported improvements in verbal memory performance as a result of methamphetamine administration. The methamphetamine group in this same study struggled with tests that measured information manipulation (i). The mechanism of methamphetamine damage to 5-HT fibers is unknown and the release of DA is believed to be an intermediate step in the cause of 5-HT degeneration.